Tramadol hydrochloride is the generic version of branded pain relievers available in the market today such as Tramal, Ultram, Rybix, Ultracet, Ryzolt, and Zytram. It is an opioid pain medication commonly prescribed for mild to severe pain issues. It can handle a wide variety of conditions such as fibromyalgia, restless legs syndrome, arthritis and other conditions. When the drug is taken as an immediate release formulation, the relief from pain related issues occurs within a few hours. In this regard, Tramadol is often placed in the same league as Codeine in the pain relief category.
What is the chemical composition of Tramadol?
Tramadol is basically a racemic mixture of R and S type stereoisomers. These isomers complement each other’s analgesic activity effectively. The drug may also be combined with Panadol which improves the efficacy of the drug in pain relief.
The reaction basically produces four different by-products.
- 1R and 2R Isomer
- 1S and 2S Isomer
- 1R and 2S Isomer
- 2R and 1S Isomer
The 1R, 2R, and 1S, 2S isomers occur in the 1:1 ratio and are the major by-products of the synthesis.
The chemical reaction then proceeds with the recrystallization of the hydrochlorides thereby forming a stable racemic mixture of (1R, 2R) + and (1S, 2S) – enantiomers responsible for the analgesic activity experienced in users.
How does Tramadol react in the body?
The drug quickly metabolizes in the body to form O-desmethyl tramadol, which is believed to be a very powerful receptor binding against µ-opioid thereby affecting the body’s norepinephrine and serotonin levels. It has long been debated if this particular characteristic of the drug can be exploited to treat other conditions such as phobia or depression, but is still not backed by adequate research or observation.
The metabolized compound so formed in the liver quickly dissolves in the blood stream. The drug hits its peak plasma levels in an hour and a half after it is taken. The formation of the racemic hydrochloride mixture is responsible for the pain relief experienced by the users. The half-life of Tramadol is found to be six hours and the residual compounds are also unlikely to stay in the body beyond a couple of days. It is water-soluble and is excreted by the kidneys.
What are typical dosages for Tramadol?
Tramadol is available in various forms such as liquids, syrups, drops, elixirs, effervescent tablets, powders, extended release capsules, suppositories, compounding powders, and injections.
The compressed tablet is available in various dosages such as 37.5 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg. The drug can be taken as both uncoated and low residue capsules under the tongue. The most common dosage issued for adults is usually 50mg taken in divided amounts.
The drug went off patent in the US and is now available in its generic form The branded version of the drug may be found as Ultram or Ultram ER. You will find both versions of Tramadol at our online pharmacy. Due to its highly addictive nature, long-term users may run the risk of overdose. So most pharmacies necessitate carrying a prescription and may deny you for the lack of one.
What side-effects are experienced by users taking Tramadol?
There are a few serious side-effects observed amongst regular users of Tramadol. These include seizures, aggravated risk of serotonin syndrome, decreased mental alertness and addiction. Common non-serious side effects include nausea, headaches, itching and constipation.
A few patients have reported issues such as electric-shock-like sensations, buzzing effect and even anxiety. In terms of sexual performance, Tramadol is also known to cause delayed ejaculation. For those with kidney and liver problems, a somewhat lower dosage of Tramadol may be prescribed. Similarly, its use is also not recommended for breast-feeding mothers and children.
Does Tramadol cause any withdrawal symptoms?
Withdrawal symptoms are quite severe for long term users. They have reported instances of headaches, palpitations, electric-shock-like sensations throughout their bodies, mood swings, anxiety, and depression. Most of them begin to witness these symptoms within twelve to thirty hours of the last dose.
Can an individual become physically dependent on Tramadol?
It is quite difficult to become addicted to Tramadol compared to other opiate-based medications. This drug is not on the list of controlled substances. Also, patients prescribed with Tramadol on a short-term basis are unlikely to develop any physical dependence on the drug.